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Central Nervous System

Anti-anxiety, anti-depressant, anti-Parkisnon, anti-dementia activity: Various rodent models of anxiety, depression, psychosis, Parkinson’s disease and dementia (Alzheimers) are being used to develop the novel therapeutics and also to conduct basic studies to establish the mechanism of etiology and pathology of these complex CNS disorders.

Animal models and in vitro screening

  • Gross behavior: Locomotor activity, rotarod test, Grip-strength meter

  • Anti anxiety: Elevated Plus maze, Light/Dark appearance test, Vogel conflict test

  • Anti-depressant: Tail suspension test, forced swim test, Sociability test and sucrose preference test.

  • Anti-dementia: Morris water maze test, 8-Arm radial maze test, Novel object recognition test and active/passive avoidance

  • Analgesia : Hot-plate test, Tail flick test, and Von Frey hair test

Papers Published

  • Dogra S, Yadav PN.Biased agonism at kappa opioid receptors: Implication in pain and mood disorders. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015 Sep 15;763(Pt B):184-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.07.018. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

  • Rajasekar N, Nath C, Hanif K, Shukla R. .Inhibitory Effect of Memantine on Streptozotocin-Induced Insulin Receptor Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, Amyloidogenesis, and Neurotrophic Factor Decline in Astrocytes. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Singh S, Mishra A, Shukla S. ALCAR Exerts Neuroprotective and Pro-Neurogenic Effects by Inhibition of Glial Activation and Oxidative Stress via Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Parkinsonian Rats. Mol Neurobiol. 2015 Jul 30. [Epub ahead of print]

  • K.V,Kumar, D.R.Krishna, Palit,G. Histaminergic H1 receptors mediated L-histidine- induced anxiety in elevated plus- maze test in mice. Behavioural Pharmacology. 18:213-218, 2007.


Ever since Gugulipid was licensed to industry for lipid lowering activity, we continued our research with Gugulipid for life style diseases and recently discovered a new utility as anti-dementia profile and have secured patent rights for the discovery [US Patent 6896901, 2005].

Animal models and in vitro screening

  • In vitro Assay:

  • Acetycholine esterase inhibition, GPCRs (Serotonin and Dopamine receptors) profiling

  • In Vivo assays:

  • Cholinergic deficits : Scoploamine induced memory deficits in MWM and NOR paradigm

  • Anti-amyloid activity: C. elegans

  • Active and Passive avoidance test

  • Eight-arm radial maze and pre-pulse inhibition tests

Product in Pipeline

  • Bacopa monniera

  • Evolvulus alsinoides

  • Gugulipid

  • Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (Bacosides 50-60%) develped at CDRI as memory enhancer

  • Bacosides A & B (Bacoside A is a mixture of 3 triterpenoid saponins bacogenin A1, A2 and A3)

Papers Published

  • Das A, Dikshit M, Nath C, Role of Molecular Isoforms of Acetylcholinesterase in Learning and Memory Functions. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005, 81: 89-99

  • Saxena G, Singh SP, Agrawal R, Nath C, Effect of donepezil and tacrine on oxidative stress in intracerebral streptozotocin induced model of dementia in mice. Eur J Pharmacol, 2008, 581: 283-289.

  • Saxena G, Singh SP, Pal R, Singh S, Pratap R, Nath C, Gugulipid, an extract of Commiphora whighitii with lipid-lowering properties, has protective effects against Streptozotocin-induced memory deficits in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 2007, 8: 797-805

  • US Patent # 6896901 ; Euopean patent #1224938